如何设置IPSec VPN客户端

简介


使用VPN,可以让你随时随地,通过加密的隧道,安全访问公司内网资源。

我们使用基于IPSec最新的协议IKEv2来实现VPN。这个协议提供了更可靠快速的认证,以及漫游不同网络的能力。更方便的是,很多常用操作系统,如Window 7以上,macOS,iOS都内置了官方的客户端,使用起来也非常顺畅便捷。

本文介绍了如何在Windows, macOS, Ubuntu, iOS和安卓上设置VPN客户端的方法。

预先准备

  • 下载CA证书
  • 从你的网管那里获取连接参数
    • VPN服务器的域名,类似‘vpn.creekside.network’形式;
    • 你的VPN账户名和密码;
  • 使用安卓手机的客户请下载客户端

Windows10


安装证书

Windows10安装证书的手续略为复杂,请参考以下胶片(点击左右侧箭头可翻页)。

1. 搜索应用程序mmc.exe并以管理员身份运行

2. 从文件菜单,选择添加/删除管理单元

3. 从左侧选择“证书”,然后点击中间的“添加”按钮

4. 选择计算机账户,然后点击下一步

5. 选择本地计算机,然后点击完成

6. 返回证书管理页面

7. 浏览到受信任的根证书颁发机构,鼠标右键,在所有任务菜单下,选择导入

8. 进入证书导入向导

9. 在文件名输入框右侧,点击浏览

10. 找到你之前下载的证书文件,点击打开

11. 浏览择证书保存选择选项,并选择受信任的根证书

12. 恭喜你,完成了证书导入流程

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设置连接

Windows已经内置了IKEv2 VPN客户端。你需要在第4步里填写你收到的VPN服务器设置信息:

  • VPN服务商:选”Windows内置”
  • 连接名称:你可以自定义便于记忆的名称
  • 服务器名称或地址:填写服务器域名
  • VPN类型:选择“IKEv2”
  • 登录类型:账户名和密码
  • 账户名:你的账户名

1. 从任务条右下角,点击网络连接图标。

2. 点击左侧的VPN选项。

3. 右边VPN页面下,选择添加VPN

4. 根据前面说明,填写相应的内容。不要使用图片中的信息

5. 你已完成设置,使用连接启动VPN。

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通过VPN访问互联网

IKEv2自动支持split tunnel功能,也就是只有远程网络才走VPN隧道,互联网流量还是走本地网关。在某些应用场景下,如果你希望使用公司的网络来访问互联网,就可以根据以下步骤完成进一步的配置。

1. 在 VPN 页面下, 点击相关设置下的 更改适配器选项

2. 鼠标右键点击VPN连接, 然后从下拉菜单中选择 属性

3.在对话框中,选择网络分页,然后选择TCP/IPv4一行,点击属性

4. 点击右下方的 高级...

5. 勾选在远程网络上使用默认网关,取消勾选自动跃点,并在下方的输入框内填入数字1

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Android


Android没有原生客户端,需要下载,并按以下步骤安装。

在应用商店里搜索 “Strongswan VPN Client” 并安装。你也可以从这里下载APK文件并手动安装。

1. 下载Strongswan VPN客户端

通过邮件,或者点击这个链接,下载证书文件到手机,并点击打开。

2. 保存证书文件到手机

选择右侧的证书安装工具,安装证书。

3. 安装证书

你可以用任何字符串命名你的证书,在证书用途上选择VPN应用。然后点击“OK”完成证书安装。

4. 配置证书

打开“Strongswan”应用程序。因为是第一次使用,页面会显示“无活跃VPN”。点击右上角的“添加VPN配置”。

5. 添加VPN配置

输入合适的配置参数(图例只是参考)
- 服务器地址: 输入发送给你的域名.
- VPN 类型: “IKEv2 EAP(用户名/密码)”
- 用户名: 你收到的用户名
- 密码: 你收到的密码
- CA证书: 确认“自动选择”已勾选.(缺省)

完成后保存。

6. 配置VPN连接

回到主页面,点击相应 的VPN配置,即可连接到VPN服务器。

7. 连接到VPN服务器
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macOS


首先按以下步骤安装证书:

  • 双击下载的证书文件。钥匙串访问应用会自动弹出一个对话框,并提示“钥匙串访问正在尝试修改系统钥匙串。输入密码以允许此次操作“
  • 输入你的计算机密码,然后点击修改钥匙串
  • 双击刚才新引入的VPN证书Creekside Networks Authority。一个参数设置窗口会弹出来,点击信任左侧的箭头,然后在IP安全 (IPSec)一栏中,把缺省的用不信任改成始终信任
  • 系统会再次要求你输入密码确认。确认完成后,刚才的改变会自动被保存下来。证书导入完毕。

接下来我们设置VPN连接。

  • 打开系统偏好设置,选择网络
  • 点击左侧网络列表框下面的“+“号;
  • 在弹出的对话框里
    • 选择接口为VPN
    • VPN类型缺省是IKEv2,这个不要改;
    • 服务名称项目里,你可以输入任何你喜欢的名字;
    • 完成后点击创建;
  • 在新的连接页面里,
    • 服务器地址:输入管理员发给你的域名;
    • 远程ID:和上述服务器地址一样的域名;
    • 本地ID:保持空白;
    • 点击认证设置…,在对话框里输入:
      • 用户名:你的VPN用户名;
      • 密码:你的VPN密码;
      • 完成后,点击“
    • 回到连接页面后,点击应用以保存刚才的设置;
    • 点击连接,你就会连接到VPN服务器了。

iOS


按照以下步骤配置VPN:

  • 使用隔空投送把证书文件发送到你的手机;
  • 一个对话框会自动弹出来,如果你有Apple Watch, 会首先提示你选择选择要安装的设备,选择iPhone,系统会提示描述文件已下载。
  • 打开设置应用,找到通用并打开
    • 向下滑动到描述文件一行出现,点击打开;
    • 在已下载的配置描述文件下方的列表里,点击Creekside Networks Authority一项;
    • 在随后出现的安装描述文件页面中,点击右上角的安装按钮;
    • 输入你的锁屏密码
    • 再次点击安装,证书安装就完成了。
  • 回到通用页面,我们开始配置VPN连接:
    • 向下滑动到VPN一行,点击打开;
    • 在页面的最后一行,点击添加VPN配置…,进入添加配置页面
      • 类型:使用缺省的IKEv2
      • 描述:VPN连接的名称,填写你公司的名称或者任意名字;
      • 服务器地址:输入管理员发给你的域名
      • 远程ID:和上述服务器地址一样的域名
      • 本地ID:保持空白
      • 用户鉴定:保持用户名不变
      • 用户名:你的VPN用户名;
      • 密码:你的VPN密码;
      • 最后点击左上角的完成
    • 回到VPN页面
      • 点选刚才设置的VPN连接;
      • 状态一栏,点击未连接右侧的开关;
      • 你就会连接到VPN服务器了。

Ubuntu


Ubuntu 16.04

首先,我们要下载Strongswan源码,编译并安装:

cd ~
sudo apt-get install -y libssl-dev libglib2.0-dev libnm-dev
wget http://download.strongswan.org/strongswan-5.6.3.tar.bz2
tar xjf strongswan-5.6.3.tar.bz2
cd ~/strongswan-5.6.3
./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib \
   --disable-aes --disable-des --disable-md5 --disable-sha1 
   --disable-sha2 --disable-fips-prf --disable-gmp --enable-openssl \
   --enable-nm --enable-agent --enable-eap-gtc --enable-eap-md5 \
   --enable-eap-mschapv2 --enable-eap-identity
make
sudo make install

然后是NetworkManager的Strongswan插件。

cd ~
sudo apt-get install -y intltool libgtk-3-dev libsecret-1-dev \
  libnma-dev network-manager-dev libnm-util-dev libnm-glib-dev \
  libnm-glib-vpn-dev libnm-gtk-dev

wget http://download.strongswan.org/NetworkManager/NetworkManager-strongswan-1.4.4.tar.bz2

tar xjf NetworkManager-strongswan-1.4.4.tar.bz2
cd ~/NetworkManager-strongswan-1.4.4
./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib

make
sudo make install

Ubuntu 18.04

我们先下载官方的Strongswan以及相应的NeworkManager插件。

sudo apt install -y strongswan libcharon-extra-plugins network-manager-strongswan

Setup VPN connections

VPN客户端安装好了,接下来是配置VPN连接。

  • Open System Settings, then select Network;
    • Ubuntu 16.04:
      • Click the + sign at the left-bottom corner, choice Interface type to VPN, then click Create;
    • Ubuntu 18.04
      • Click the + sign at the right side of VPN list.
  • A VPN connection type dialog box will pop out, choose IPSec/IKEv2 (Strongswan), click Create;
    • Now a configuration dialog box will pop out. fill in information as directed below;
      • Name: Any text you like to name the VPN connection
      • Gateway
        • Address: The VPN server’s domain name IT sent to you.
        • Certificate: Browse to choose the certificate file you received. 
      • Client
        • Authentication: Select “EAP
        • Username: Use the userid that is given to you.
        • Password:
          • Click the icon at the end of input box.
          • Select the 2nd option: Store the password for all users.
          • Input your password
      • Options:
        • Make sure you check the “Request an inner IP address”.
        • Optionally you may also check Enforce UDP encapsulation
        • Leave use IP compression unchecked.
      • Cipher Proposals
        • Leave this section blank.
    • Finally click the “Add” button to save the configuration.

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